Research Notes 

About the API Research Notes

API Research Notes Series publishes scientifically valid research outputs that cannot be considered as full research or methodology articles. Its aim is to provide a forum for sharing data, useful information and perspectives on topical issues of concern to the policy and research communities. Articles published under this series cut across disciplines, and include some short articles or opinion pieces that have already been published by the experts of the Africa Policy Institute. Some are brief publications, updates to previous work, abridged versions of research agendas or concept notes or brief reports of policy forums.
  • Kenya’s 2017 Electoral Impasse a Severe Test to Global...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract America’s new world order is officially dead! This is the shattering, but unanimous verdict of world media this week, from Tokyo (Japan Times) to London (the influential Economist Magazine) and New York (Bloomberg). The plight of America’s efforts to globalize...
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  • Raila’s Election Gambit: "Kill the Referee and Share Power"
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract “Kenyans must protect their hard-won democracy at any cost” advises Prof. Peter Kagwanja. Kagwanja sentiments are stemming from keenly observing and decoding the National Super Alliance (NASA) strategy which is meant to capture state power by holding hostage the IEBC in disguise of...
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  • China’s Humanitarian Response to Africa’s Natural Disasters
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract An analysis of China's aid and relief support to countries struggling under serious natural disasters reveals that it is emerging as a formidable actor in the humanitarian space particularly in South-South assistance. This is in sharp contrast to the...
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  • Kenya Needs to Devolve Its Election Management
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract After the September 1, 2017, Supreme Court ruling that annulled President Uhuru Kenyatta’s victory in the August 8, 2017, general election, Prof. Kagwanja, observes the controversial ruling and asserts that the ruling by the Majority Judges has out rightly...
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  • Makau Mutua, Channel Your Energies to Profitable Enterprises
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Allow me to address myself directly to Mr. Mutua. I would have expected you as a civilized man Mr. Mutua to write to me before asking questions about me to a third Party when I am able to answer...
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  • Petition Ruling Absolves Uhuru, Breaths New Life into Raila’s...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Kenya’s Apex Court delivered an earthshaking ruling following a petition on the outcome of the just concluded Presidential Election by President Uhuru Kenyatta’s main challenger Raila Odinga. While the Electoral Management Body (EMB) known as the Independent Electoral and...
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  • Kenya’s 2017 General Elections: The Birth of a New...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract August 8, 2017, elections catapulted Kenya to the league of countries with bona fide liberal democracies. However, as Professor Peter Kagwanja observed, the bizarre rowdiness and disruptiveness responses after the release of the August 8, General elections results by...
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  • Ramming and Stabbing: The 5th Wave of Modern Terrorism?
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract The definition and the understanding of terrorism have largely been in a state of disarray since September 11 2001, a day that marked the longest bloody day in the history of modern terrorism. To establish an understanding of modern...
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  • Doctrine of Peaceful Transition of Power Key to Electoral...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Professor Kagwanja observes that the 2017 election is occurring in a polarized environment fostered by intense and conflict-prone post-truth politics. His views emanate from a historical perspective depicting Kenya’s return to multi-party democracy in 1992, where every subsequent General...
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  • Foreign Election Observer Missions Expressed Confidence in Kenya's Electoral...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Election Observer Missions (EOM) play a critical role in checking and strengthening democracies across the globe. They operate within a prescribed code of conduct as they assess whether electoral processes in a given country are aligned to local, regional...
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  • Kenya’s Populists Need the Art of Winning and Losing...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract In his commentary, Prof Kagwanja observes that, in the context of the rising populism and civil society extremism, Kenya’s norms of social politeness, decency, and decorum which reinforce democracy are under threat. His observation tends to emanate from the...
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  • The Myth of Civil Society in Kenya’s Democracy
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Kenya’s civil society is a frightening paradox. As observed by Professor Peter Kagwanja, the said Civil Society has patched together a powerful ‘informal empire’ based on an unholy alliance with known corruption rings, adroitly infiltrating and capturing strategic cogs...
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  • Two Human Rights Fundamentalisms Wreaking Havoc on Kenya’s Democracy
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract As Kenya goes to the August 8, 2017, general election, Professor Peter Kagwanja observes that human rights fundamentalism that stalks the country’s electoral scene pose as a great existential threat than Al-Shabaab Islamic extremists. Prof.Kagwanja also argues that elections...
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  • Raila’s Last Stand: A Covert Look at Nasa’s Besieged...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Raila Odinga will be facing off for the presidency with President Uhuru Kenyatta on August 8,2017. It is rumored that he has intimated to his closest confidants that these elections are a do-or-die affair as they are to hand...
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  • 7 Reasons Why Kenyan Voters Favor Uhuru Over Raila
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract In the coming hotly contested presidential elections, it has become increasingly apparent that Kenyan voters are leaning towards development and stability by voting in the Uhuruto team for a second and final term. Their informed bias towards the incumbent...
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  • Assassination as a Tool for Power Play
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract In a world faced with power tussle amongst dictators, Presidents, Heads of State, Kings, Spearheads, Power-brokers and demagogues, assassination tactics which date back to the ancient history, has and still is, used as a tool for power play by...
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  • Changing Faces of a Terrorist
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract September 11, 2001 marked the long bloody day in the history of modern terrorism. The attack on the US military nerve center changed the way the world viewed terrorism and terrorist. It triggered major changes in ways of understanding...
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  • Electoral Politics: Growing Influence of ‘Dirty’ Money Undermining the...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Money has always played an important role in the rise and fall of political candidates in democracies around the world. However, poorly designed and enforced legal frameworks, or lack thereof to check this especially in young democracies has allowed...
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  • Kenya’s 2017 Elections Populism and Institutional Capture a Threat...
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract In the run up to August 8, 2017, General Elections, Kenya exemplifies the global surge of populism, which has thrust democratic institutions into the center-stage of the elite power play. The country is caught up in a worldwide clash...
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  • New Super Tribes Shaping Kenya’s 2017 Election.
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract. Africa’s misfortune, is that politics is not about a higher idea of the nation. It is all about the use of the ethnic identity in political competition with other groups. Nonetheless, understanding political tribalism is key to ending conflicts...
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  • THE CLASH OF IDEOLOGIES KENYA’S 2017 GENERAL ELECTIONS.
    Kenya’s 2017 General Elections: The Clash of Ideologies.
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Kenya is experiencing a return of the titanic ideological clash between rival capitalist and socialist visions of society, deepening social polarization and putting at risk the ruling Jubilee’s ambitious to transform Kenya into an industrial economy in the global...
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  • SGR Madaraka Express
    Kenya’s ‘Rail Strategy’ Will Revolutionize Development.
    anemptytextlline
    Abstract Future generations are likely to remember Uhuru Kenyatta’s presidency for implementing one of Africa’s most audacious railway projects. Ideologically, the ‘railway strategy’ which is about speed, capacity and cost will enhance Kenya's strategic position, capturing Kenyatta’s Africa-centered foreign policy...
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  • NASA “shooting the referee” to Force a Coalition Government
    NASA “shooting the referee” to Force a Coalition Government.
    anemptytextlline
    The last couple of months have been a battlefield for the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC). It has received hefty thwarting from the opposition particularly from the National Super Alliance (NASA) that has exposed it to the courts...
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  • Sanctity of IEBC Supreme
    Kenya: Sanctity of IEBC Supreme
    anemptytextlline
    IEBC must defend itself or perish like its predecessors—and plunge the country into uncertainty. On June 9, 2017, the research firm, East African Index, published its forecast which showed that after his recent flurry of campaigns in battleground zones in...
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  • Sanctity of IEBC Supreme
    Kenya: Threat to Democracy
    anemptytextlline
    Vicious power wars and incitement to violence involving sections of the political elite poses the greatest threat to Kenya’s democratic institutions and to peaceful general elections on August 8, 2017. The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) must take...
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  • global counter terrorism
    The 'Soft Power Turn' in Global Counter-Violent Extremism
    anemptytextlline
    The failure of the hard power or security-based approaches to stem the preponderant rise of radicalization and terrorist activities on a global scale has shifted policy focus to the resources of soft power to counter extremism. As the dominant...
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  • Confronting Emerging Threats: Humanitarian Diplomacy, Disaster Management, Violent Extremism and Election Stability
    Confronting Emerging Threats: Humanitarian Diplomacy, Disaster Management, Violent Extremism...
    anemptytextlline
     Leveraging on Humanitarian DiplomacyThough Kenya has unmatched humanitarian credentials, it has not been able to structure quality in a manner that leverages on Kenya Humanitarian Diplomacy as a means of advancing its “soft power” agenda, while at the same...
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  • THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TERROR ACTIVITIES
    The Economic Impact of Terror Activities
    anemptytextlline
      Introduction to Terrorism in Kenya The global surge of terrorist attacks by groups linked to either al-Qaeda or ISIS in the last decade has necessitated a critical review of our understanding of related concepts and actors that lead to radicalization,...
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  • Developing an African Public Diplomacy Framework
    anemptytextlline
     Public diplomacy and soft power is multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary academic and practice field. In a broad sense, public diplomacy and soft power is the engagement of actors in one country with publics in another country or region in...
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  • 'We Cannot Eat Metal' Strategic Response To NASA's Food...
    anemptytextlline
      The food crisis, in form of shortage and high prices, being experienced in the country has created a social, cultural and political fleapit, where members of the clergy, citizens and politicians are depositing their wave of grievances while at...
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  • Kenya Election 2017 Violence Briefing
    anemptytextlline
     AbstractKenya’s 2017 election will have a significant impact on election management based on security threats and the potential for election violence. It is therefore incumbent on the government to intervene early enough to reduce the threats and attendant tensions that have triggered...
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  • Nation-Building In South Sudan: A Prerequisite For Sustainable Peace...
    anemptytextlline
    Author: Dr. Wilson Muna Whilst the independence of South Sudan was largely motivated by the animosity for the Arab North, the euphoria was short lived and did not translate to the unity among the Southerners. In its agenda setting, the...
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